Inkscape tutorial: Nasveti

V tem vodiču vam bomo predstavili razne trike, ki so jih naši uporabniki spoznali med uporabljanjem Inkscapa, pa tudi nekatere bolj "skrite" možnosti programa, ki vam lahko pomagajo pri delu.

Radial placement with Tiled Clones

It's easy to see how to use the Create Tiled Clones dialog for rectangular grids and patterns. But what if you need radial placement, where objects share a common center of rotation? It's possible too!

If your radial pattern only needs to have 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 elements, then you can try the P3, P31M, P3M1, P4, P4M, P6, or P6M symmetries. These will work nicely for snowflakes and the like. A more general method, however, is as follows.

Izberite tlakovanje P1 (enostavni premik) in potem kompenzirajte ta prenos v zavihku Premik, kjer nastavite obe opciji Na vrsto/Premik Y and Na stolpec/Premik X na -100 %. Sedaj bodo vsi kloni zloženi na vrh originala. Sedaj je treba samo še v zavihku Vrtenje nastaviti nekaj vrtenj na stolpec, ustvariti vzorec z eno vrstico in večimi stolpci. Primer: vzorec, sestavljen iz vodoravne črte, s 30 stolpci, vsak od njih je zavrten za 6 stopinj:

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Če želite iz tega ustvariti urino krožnico, preprosto izrežite ali prekrijte sredinski del z belim krogom (če želite izvajati matematične operacije na klonih, jih prej razvežite).

Bolj zanimivi učinki se dajo doseči z uporabo tako stolpcev kot tudi vrstic. Tu je vzorec z desetimi stolpci in osmimi vrsticami, vrtenjem 2 stopinji na vrstico in 18 stopinj na stolpec. Vsaka skupina črt je "stolpec", tako da so skupine 18 stopinj vsaksebi. Znotraj vsakega stolpca so posamezne črte 2 stopinji vsaksebi.

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In the above examples, the line was rotated around its center. But what if you want the center to be outside of your shape? Just click on the object twice with the Selector tool to enter rotation mode. Now move the object's rotation center (represented by a small cross-shaped handle) to the point you would like to be the center of the rotation for the Tiled Clones operation. Then use Create Tiled Clones on the object. This is how you can do nice “explosions” or “starbursts” by randomizing scale, rotation, and possibly opacity:

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How to do slicing (multiple rectangular export areas)?

Create a new layer, in that layer create invisible rectangles covering parts of your image. Make sure your document uses the px unit (default), turn on grid and snap the rects to the grid so that each one spans a whole number of px units. Assign meaningful ids to the rects, and export each one to its own file (File > Export PNG Image (Shift+Ctrl+E)). Then the rects will remember their export filenames. After that, it's very easy to re-export some of the rects: switch to the export layer, use Tab to select the one you need (or use Find by id), and click Export in the dialog. Or, you can write a shell script or batch file to export all of your areas, with a command like:

inkscape -i area-id -t filename.svg

for each exported area. The -t switch tells it to use the remembered filename hint, otherwise you can provide the export filename with the -e switch. Alternatively, you can use the Extensions > Web > Slicer extensions, or Extensions > Export > Guillotine for similar results.

Nezvezni prelivi

Trenutna različica SVGja ne podpira nezveznih prelivov. Lahko pa jih ustvarite z večstopenjskimi prelivi.

Start with a simple two-stop gradient (you can assign that in the Fill and Stroke dialog or use the gradient tool). Now, with the gradient tool, add a new gradient stop in the middle; either by double-clicking on the gradient line, or by selecting the square-shaped gradient stop and clicking on the button Insert new stop in the gradient tool's tool bar at the top. Drag the new stop a bit. Then add more stops before and after the middle stop and drag them too, so that the gradient looks smooth. The more stops you add, the smoother you can make the resulting gradient. Here's the initial black-white gradient with two stops:

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Tu pa je nekaj "nezveznih" prelivov z več postanki (raziskujte jih z Urejevalnikom prelivov (ki ga najdete pod gumbom Uredi v pogovornem oknu Polnilo in obroba):

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Nesredinski krožni prelivi

Krožni prelivi niso nujno simetrični. Če v polju za prelive v pogovornem oknu Polnilo in obroba držite tipko Shift in povlečete srednjo ročico, boste premaknili središče preliva. Ko tega ne potrebujete več, lahko središče premaknete nazaj na sredino tako, da ga povlečete blizu sredine.

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Poravnava na sredino strani

To align something to the center or side of a page, select the object or group and then choose Page from the Relative to: list in the Align and Distribute dialog (Shift+Ctrl+A).

Čiščenje dokumenta

Many of the no-longer-used gradients, patterns, and markers (more precisely, those which you edited manually) remain in the corresponding palettes and can be reused for new objects. However if you want to optimize your document, use the Clean up Document command in File menu. It will remove any gradients, patterns, or markers which are not used by anything in the document, making the file smaller.

Skrite možnosti in urejevalnik XML

The XML editor (Shift+Ctrl+X) allows you to change almost all aspects of the document without using an external text editor. Also, Inkscape usually supports more SVG features than are accessible from the GUI. The XML editor is one way to get access to these features (if you know SVG).

Spreminjanje enote ravnila

In the default template, the unit of measure used by the rulers is mm. This is also the unit used in displaying coordinates at the lower-left corner and preselected in all units menus. (You can always hover your mouse over a ruler to see the tooltip with the units it uses.) To change this, open Document Properties (Shift+Ctrl+D) and change the Display units on the Page tab.

Žigosanje

Za hitro kopiranje predmetov lahko uporabite žig. Povlecite predmet z miško (ali pa ga vrtite oz. mu spreminjajte velikost) in pritiskajte na preslednico. Vsak pritisk pusti za seboj odtis predmeta.

Nasveti za orodje Pero

Za dokončanje črte z orodjem Pero (Bezier) imate več možnosti:

Dokler je pot nedokončana (obarvana je zeleno, izbrani segment pa rdeče), v dokumentu ne obstaja kot objekt. Za prekinitev poti uporabite Esc (izbris celotne poti) ali Backscape (izbris zadnjega segmenta še nedokončane poti) namesto ukaza Razveljavi.

Za dodajanje podpoti že obstoječi poti označite pot in držite tipko Shift ter začnite risati iz poljubne točke. Če pa želite le nadaljevati že obstoječo pot, Shift ni potreben - vse, kar morate storiti je, da začnete risati iz enega izmed končnih sider na izbrani poti.

Vnašanje Unicode simbolov

While in the Text tool, pressing Ctrl+U toggles between Unicode and normal mode. In Unicode mode, each group of 4 hexadecimal digits you type becomes a single Unicode character, thus allowing you to enter arbitrary symbols (as long as you know their Unicode codepoints and the font supports them). To finish the Unicode input, press Enter. For example, Ctrl+U 2 0 1 4 Enter inserts an em-dash (—). To quit the Unicode mode without inserting anything press Esc.

You can also use the Text > Glyphs dialog to search for and insert glyphs into your document.

Uporaba mreže pri risanju ikon

Suppose you want to create a 24x24 pixel icon. Create a 24x24 px canvas (use the Document Preferences) and set the grid to 0.5 px (48x48 gridlines). Now, if you align filled objects to even gridlines, and stroked objects to odd gridlines with the stroke width in px being an even number, and export it at the default 96dpi (so that 1 px becomes 1 bitmap pixel), you get a crisp bitmap image without unneeded antialiasing.

Sukanje predmeta

When in the Selector tool, click on an object to see the scaling arrows, then click again on the object to see the rotation and skew arrows. If the arrows at the corners are clicked and dragged, the object will rotate around the center (shown as a cross mark). If you hold down the Shift key while doing this, the rotation will occur around the opposite corner. You can also drag the rotation center to any place.

Predmete lahko vrtite tudi s pomočjo tipkovnice, in sicer z naslednjimi tipkami: [ in ] (za 15 stopinj) ali Ctrl+[ in Ctrl+] (za 90 stopinj). Če poleg tipk [] držite še tipko Alt, boste predmete lahko vrteli točko po točko.

Rastrske padajoče sence

To quickly create drop shadows for objects, use the Filters > Shadows and Glows > Drop Shadow... feature.

You can also easily create blurred drop shadows for objects manually with blur in the Fill and Stroke dialog. Select an object, duplicate it by Ctrl+D, press PgDown to put it beneath original object, place it a little to the right and lower than original object. Now open Fill And Stroke dialog and change Blur value to, say, 5.0. That's it!

Postavljanje besedila na krivuljo

Besedilo postavite na krivuljo tako, da označite tako besedilo kot tudi krivuljo in izberete ukaz Postavi na pot iz menija Besedilo. Začetek besedila bo na začetku poti. V splošnem je bolje ustvariti točno določeno pot, na katero želite postaviti tekst, kot pa prilagajati tekst kakemu drugemu elementu — ta metoda omogoča več nadzora in manj skrbi, da bi uničili svojo risbo.

Izbiranje izvirnika

Če imate besedilo postavljeno na pot, povezan zamik ali klon, je včasih težko izbrati originalen objekt oz. pot, saj je takoj pod tekstom, nevidna in/ali zaklenjena. Čarobna kombinacija Shift+D vam bo pomagala v tem primeru; označite besedilo, linked offset ali klon in pritisnite Shift+D, nato pa premaknite izbran objekt do originialne poti, izvirnik zamika ali klona.

Obnova oken

When moving documents between systems with different resolutions or number of displays, you may find Inkscape has saved a window position that places the window out of reach on your screen. Simply maximise the window (which will bring it back into view, use the task bar), save and reload. You can avoid this altogether by unchecking the global option to save window geometry (Inkscape Preferences, Interface > Windows section).

Prosojnost, prelivi in izvoz v PostScript

PostScript or EPS formats do not support transparency, so you should never use it if you are going to export to PS/EPS. In the case of flat transparency which overlays flat color, it's easy to fix it: Select one of the transparent objects; switch to the Dropper tool (F7 or d); make sure that the Opacity: Pick button in the dropper tool's tool bar is deactivated; click on that same object. That will pick the visible color and assign it back to the object, but this time without transparency. Repeat for all transparent objects. If your transparent object overlays several flat color areas, you will need to break it correspondingly into pieces and apply this procedure to each piece. Note that the dropper tool does not change the opacity value of the object, but only the alpha value of its fill or stroke color, so make sure that every object's opacity value is set to 100% before you start out.