Inkscape tutorial: Trucos y Consejos

Este tutorial mostrará varios trucos y consejos que los usuarios han aprendido a través del uso de Inkscape y algunas caracterñsiticas y opciones "ocultas" que le ayudaran a aumentar la velocidad en la producción de sus trabajos.

Radial placement with Tiled Clones

It's easy to see how to use the Create Tiled Clones dialog for rectangular grids and patterns. But what if you need radial placement, where objects share a common center of rotation? It's possible too!

If your radial pattern only needs to have 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 elements, then you can try the P3, P31M, P3M1, P4, P4M, P6, or P6M symmetries. These will work nicely for snowflakes and the like. A more general method, however, is as follows.

Escoja la simetría P1 (traslación simple) y después compensar para que esa traslación vaya a la pestaña Desplazamiento y configure Por Fila/Y y Por columna/X ambos a -100%. Ahora todos los clones serán colocados en la parte superior del original. Todo lo que queda por hacer es ir a la pestaña Rotación y configurar con algún ángulo de rotación por columna, después cree el patrón con una fila con múltiples columnas. Por ejemplo, he aquí un patrón hecho a partir de una línea horizontal, con 30 columnas, cada columna rotada 6 grados:

An example image

Para obtener un radio de reloj, todo lo que tiene que hacer es cortar o simplemente superponer la parte central mediante un círculo blanco (para hacer operaciones booleanas sobre clones, desconéctelos primero).

Efectos más interesantes pueden ser creados mediante el uso de ambas filas y columnas. Aquí hay un patrón con 10 columnas y 8 filas, con rotación de 2 grados por fila y 18 grados por columna. Aquí cada grupo de líneas es una "columna", así los grupos están a 18 grados del otro; en cada columna, líneas individuales están 2 grados aparte:

An example image

In the above examples, the line was rotated around its center. But what if you want the center to be outside of your shape? Just click on the object twice with the Selector tool to enter rotation mode. Now move the object's rotation center (represented by a small cross-shaped handle) to the point you would like to be the center of the rotation for the Tiled Clones operation. Then use Create Tiled Clones on the object. This is how you can do nice “explosions” or “starbursts” by randomizing scale, rotation, and possibly opacity:

An example image

How to do slicing (multiple rectangular export areas)?

Create a new layer, in that layer create invisible rectangles covering parts of your image. Make sure your document uses the px unit (default), turn on grid and snap the rects to the grid so that each one spans a whole number of px units. Assign meaningful ids to the rects, and export each one to its own file (File > Export PNG Image (Shift+Ctrl+E)). Then the rects will remember their export filenames. After that, it's very easy to re-export some of the rects: switch to the export layer, use Tab to select the one you need (or use Find by id), and click Export in the dialog. Or, you can write a shell script or batch file to export all of your areas, with a command like:

inkscape -i area-id -t filename.svg

for each exported area. The -t switch tells it to use the remembered filename hint, otherwise you can provide the export filename with the -e switch. Alternatively, you can use the Extensions > Web > Slicer extensions, or Extensions > Export > Guillotine for similar results.

Gradientes No-lineales

La versión 1.1 de SVG no soporta gradientes no-lineales (i.e. aquellos que poseen una traslación no-lineal entre colores). Usted puede, sin embargo, los emula mediante los gradientes multiparada.

Start with a simple two-stop gradient (you can assign that in the Fill and Stroke dialog or use the gradient tool). Now, with the gradient tool, add a new gradient stop in the middle; either by double-clicking on the gradient line, or by selecting the square-shaped gradient stop and clicking on the button Insert new stop in the gradient tool's tool bar at the top. Drag the new stop a bit. Then add more stops before and after the middle stop and drag them too, so that the gradient looks smooth. The more stops you add, the smoother you can make the resulting gradient. Here's the initial black-white gradient with two stops:

An example image

Y aquí hay varios gradientes "no-lineales" multi-punto (examínelos en el Editor de Gradientes):

An example image

Gradientes Radiales Excentricos

Los gradientes radiales no tienen por que ser simétricos. En la herramienta Gradiente, arrastre el manejador central de un gradiente elíptico con Mayus. Esto moverá el manejador de foco del gradiente lejos de su centro. cuando usted no lo necesite, puede ajustar el foco a un esto anterior arrastrándolo cerca del centro.

An example image

Alineando al centro de la página

To align something to the center or side of a page, select the object or group and then choose Page from the Relative to: list in the Align and Distribute dialog (Shift+Ctrl+A).

Limpiar el documento

Many of the no-longer-used gradients, patterns, and markers (more precisely, those which you edited manually) remain in the corresponding palettes and can be reused for new objects. However if you want to optimize your document, use the Clean up Document command in File menu. It will remove any gradients, patterns, or markers which are not used by anything in the document, making the file smaller.

Características ocultas del editor de XML

The XML editor (Shift+Ctrl+X) allows you to change almost all aspects of the document without using an external text editor. Also, Inkscape usually supports more SVG features than are accessible from the GUI. The XML editor is one way to get access to these features (if you know SVG).

Cambiando las unidades de medida de las reglas

In the default template, the unit of measure used by the rulers is mm. This is also the unit used in displaying coordinates at the lower-left corner and preselected in all units menus. (You can always hover your mouse over a ruler to see the tooltip with the units it uses.) To change this, open Document Properties (Shift+Ctrl+D) and change the Display units on the Page tab.

Estampado

Para crear varias copias de un objeto, use estampado. Tan sólo arrastre un objeto (o escálelo o rótelo), y mientras lo mantiene presionado con el ratón, presione Barra Espaceadora. Esto permite una "estampilla" del objeto o forma actual. Usted puede repetir tantas veces como lo desee.

Trucos de la herramienta Pluma

En la herramienta Pluma (Bezier), usted puede obtener las siguientes opciones para finalizar la línea actual:

Note que mientras el trazo no está finalizado (i.e. es mostrado verde, con el segmento actual de color rojo) este no existe aún como un objeto en el documento. aemás, para cancelar esto, use o Esc (cancela todo el trazo) o Barra Espaceadora (remueva el último segmento del trazo sin finalizar) en vez del comando Deshacer.

Para agregar un nuevo subtrazo para un trazo existente, seleccione el trazoo y inicie a dibujar con Mayus desde un punto arbitrario. Si, sin embargo, lo que quiere simplificarIf, however, what you want is to simply continue an existing path, Mayus is not necessary; just start drawing from one of the end anchors of the selected path.

Ingresando valores Unicode

While in the Text tool, pressing Ctrl+U toggles between Unicode and normal mode. In Unicode mode, each group of 4 hexadecimal digits you type becomes a single Unicode character, thus allowing you to enter arbitrary symbols (as long as you know their Unicode codepoints and the font supports them). To finish the Unicode input, press Enter. For example, Ctrl+U 2 0 1 4 Enter inserts an em-dash (—). To quit the Unicode mode without inserting anything press Esc.

You can also use the Text > Glyphs dialog to search for and insert glyphs into your document.

Usando la rejilla para dibujar íconos

Suppose you want to create a 24x24 pixel icon. Create a 24x24 px canvas (use the Document Preferences) and set the grid to 0.5 px (48x48 gridlines). Now, if you align filled objects to even gridlines, and stroked objects to odd gridlines with the stroke width in px being an even number, and export it at the default 96dpi (so that 1 px becomes 1 bitmap pixel), you get a crisp bitmap image without unneeded antialiasing.

Rotación de Objetos

When in the Selector tool, click on an object to see the scaling arrows, then click again on the object to see the rotation and skew arrows. If the arrows at the corners are clicked and dragged, the object will rotate around the center (shown as a cross mark). If you hold down the Shift key while doing this, the rotation will occur around the opposite corner. You can also drag the rotation center to any place.

O, puede rotar desde el teclado presionando [ y ] (por 15 grados) o Ctrl+[ y Ctrl+] (por 90 grados). Las mismas teclas [] junto con Alt desarrollan una lenta rotación a partir del tamaño de pixel.

Mapa de bits arrojando sombras

To quickly create drop shadows for objects, use the Filters > Shadows and Glows > Drop Shadow... feature.

You can also easily create blurred drop shadows for objects manually with blur in the Fill and Stroke dialog. Select an object, duplicate it by Ctrl+D, press PgDown to put it beneath original object, place it a little to the right and lower than original object. Now open Fill And Stroke dialog and change Blur value to, say, 5.0. That's it!

Colocando texto sobre un trazo

Para colocar texto a lo largo de una curva, seleccione el texto y la curva y escoja Poner en trayecto desde el menú Texto. El texto iniciará en el principio del trazo. En general este es la mejor manera de crear un trazo explícito del cual desea que el texto este ajustado, mejor que esto, ajústelo a otros elementos de dibujo — esto le dará un mayor control sin tener que atornillarlo a su dibujo.

Selecting the original

When you have a text on path, a linked offset, or a clone, their source object/path may be difficult to select because it may be directly underneath, or made invisible and/or locked. The magic key Mayus+D will help you; select the text, linked offset, or clone, and press Mayus+D to move selection to the corresponding path, offset source, or clone original.

Recuperación de la salida de la ventana

When moving documents between systems with different resolutions or number of displays, you may find Inkscape has saved a window position that places the window out of reach on your screen. Simply maximise the window (which will bring it back into view, use the task bar), save and reload. You can avoid this altogether by unchecking the global option to save window geometry (Inkscape Preferences, Interface > Windows section).

Exporte de Trasparencias, gradientes y PostScript

PostScript or EPS formats do not support transparency, so you should never use it if you are going to export to PS/EPS. In the case of flat transparency which overlays flat color, it's easy to fix it: Select one of the transparent objects; switch to the Dropper tool (F7 or d); make sure that the Opacity: Pick button in the dropper tool's tool bar is deactivated; click on that same object. That will pick the visible color and assign it back to the object, but this time without transparency. Repeat for all transparent objects. If your transparent object overlays several flat color areas, you will need to break it correspondingly into pieces and apply this procedure to each piece. Note that the dropper tool does not change the opacity value of the object, but only the alpha value of its fill or stroke color, so make sure that every object's opacity value is set to 100% before you start out.